Unit Overview:

How Can We Minimize the Warming Effects of the  Sun?

In the design challenge at the end of this unit, students will be asked to use tools and materials to design and build an object that will keep ice water cold for 30 minutes when placed in direct sunlight. To prepare for the challenge, students will test different materials to determine how well they keep an ice cube insulated. They will compare their insulated ice cube to a control ice cube in direct sunlight and record the weight of the insulated cube each minute up to 20 minutes. In the final Design Challenge they will create a container for ice water that will attempt to keep the water at the same temperature for 30 minutes. Student teams will share their results, and compare and contrast differences between each team’s approaches in solving the problem. Student teams will explain to an audience how their designs effectively minimized the warming effects of the sun and how the concepts of weight and temperature helped them in their analysis.

Educational outcomes

  • Students will use given scientific information about sunlight’s warming effect on the Earth’s surface to collaboratively design and build a structure that reduces warming caused by the sun.
  • With support, students individually describe:
    • The problem
    • The design solution
    • In what way the design solution uses the given scientific information.
  • Students will describe specific features of the design solution
  • Students will describe that the structure is expected to reduce warming for a designated item by providing insulation
  • Students will use only the given materials and tools when building the structure.
  • Students will evaluate potential solutions from each other.
  • Students will describe whether the structure meets the expectations in terms of cause (structure blocks sunlight) and effect (less warming).

STEAM INTEGRATION

In Lesson 1, the Empathy phase, students gain curiosity about the heat of the sun and how sunlight warms the Earth’s surface. Student teams learn together by asking questions, making observations, and gathering information for why somethings are insulated from the heat of the sun and how people developed new objects or tools to address these situations (for instance: umbrellas, canopies, tents, lunchboxes, water bottles, etc.); (NGSS K-2-ETS1-1). In Lesson 2, theDefine phase, students examine different materials that might be useful for insulating an ice cube from the heat of the sun. They draw and compare an insulated ice cube to that of a control ice cube as each melts; (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1) and (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.2). In Lesson 3, the Design Challenge or IdeatePrototype, and Test phases, student teams iterate on a design prototyping it, testing it, and redesigning it until all requirements are met to design an insulator for a container using materials that minimize the effects of sunlight on a container of ice water when the container is placed in direct sunlight (NGSS K-PS3-2). The final design compares the temperature of the water inside the insulated container to the temperature of the water inside the non-insulated container after 30 minutes to verify which design material worked best [(NGSS K-2-ETS1-2), (NGSS K-2-ETS1-3.), (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1) and (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.2).

 

Design Thinking Overview

Our design thinking units have five phases based on the d.school’s model. Each phase can be repeated to allow students to re-work and iterate while developing deeper understanding of the core concepts. These are the five phases of the design thinking model:

EMPATHIZE: Work to fully understand the experience of the user for whom you are designing.  Do this through observation, interaction, and immersing yourself in their experiences.

DEFINE: Process and synthesize the findings from your empathy work in order to form a user point of view that you will address with your design.

IDEATE: Explore a wide variety of possible solutions through generating a large quantity of diverse possible solutions, allowing you to step beyond the obvious and explore a range of ideas.

PROTOTYPE: Transform your ideas into a physical form so that you can experience and interact with them and, in the process, learn and develop more empathy.

TEST: Try out high-resolution products and use observations and feedback to refine prototypes, learn more about the user, and refine your original point of view.

The Design Thinking Process | ReDesigning Theater. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://dschool.stanford.edu/redesigningtheater/the-design-thinking-process/

Unit Materials

Please click on the following links:

Tech

Other

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page:Blocking the Sun’s Rays  (Optional: a binder for each student to keep their Makerspace Journal pages in)

 

Maker Journal Pages

Please click on the following links:

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page: Blocking the Sun’s Rays

Lesson 2 Maker Journal Page:  Which Materials Insulate an Ice Cube Best?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page1:  Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page2:  How Will Your Design Team Keep Ice Water Cold?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page3: What Does Your Final Design Look Like?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page4: Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun!

Extra Maker Journal page (for any lesson):   Maker Journal Extra Page

Lesson 1: Empathy: Blocking the Sun's Rays (45 min)

 Investigating ways to block the warming effects of the sun

This lesson focuses on students exploring the warming effects of the sun and reasons for blocking out the sun’s rays (NGSS K-2-ETS1-1).

Students will draw a picture of an everyday object that helps block out the sunlight and explain how the shape of their object helps it block out the sun’s warming effects (NGSS K-2-ETS1-2).

Essential Questions:

  • Why would you need to protect something from the sun?
  • How do we block the sun in everyday life?

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Professional Preparation:

 

Student Direction

Sample teacher and student dialog

T: “Can you think of anything that you have measured, or might need to measure?”

S: My feet for new shoes, how tall I am at the doctor, ingredients for cooking…

T: “Why do we measure things?”

S: To get the right size shoes/clothes, to know how big something is, to know how much something grows/moves…

T: “What are some tools that you know about for measuring?”

S: Ruler, measuring cups…

T: “We’re going to take a look at this video about how people, and squids measure things.  As you watch think about any questions you have, or anything new you are learning about measuring.” Watch “How People (And Squids) Measure Things” from SciShowKids if you have the ability to show a youtube video in your class.

T: “A unit of measurement is something we used to say how big or small something else is.  In the video we heard about measuring lengths in inches, centimeters, miles, and kilometers.  How many units of measurement can we think of?”

S: Suggest different units of measurement.

T: Share some other interesting measuring units.  Consider tying in the history of the units.  Suggestions are in the Quick Concept Review section of this lesson.

Student Direction

Examples of measuring units:

  • Measuring a horse’s size in hands.  A hand in this context is 4 inches, and was derived from the width of a human hand, or fist.  This measurement is a base 4 system, as opposed to our base 10 system of counting.  
  • Measuring size using a foot as a measuring tool.
  • Inches are based of thumbs
  • A yard is based off a person’s stride
  • Nautical knots (speed at sea) are based off of throwing a knotted rope overboard and seeing how many knots go by in a given time.  1 knot is equal to approximately 1.15 mph.  Log lines (the knotted ropes used to measure knots) had knots about 47 feet apart, and the knots were counted for 28 seconds.

Learning Targets

  • Students will be able to:

    • Explain how the sun’s warmth has benefits and can also be harmful.  
    • Explain how and why certain everyday objects help block the ray’s of the sun.

Lesson Materials 

Please click on the following links:

Tech

Other

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page:Blocking the Sun’s Rays  (Optional: a binder for each student to keep their Makerspace Journal pages in)

 

External Resources

Videos:

 

Maker Journal Pages

Please click on the following links:

Lesson 1 Maker Journal Page: Blocking the Sun’s Rays

Extra Maker Journal page (for any lesson):   Maker Journal Extra Page

Teacher Notes

Always preview videos ahead of showing to the class.  Consider pre-selecting other images and/or other sites on the subject of the sun.  Discuss why some objects are made the way they are in order to block out the sun’s rays.

 

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

 

Assessment

  • Student Self Assessment

    Students review their own reasons for choosing certain objects to sheild the warmth of the sun, and evaluate whether they addressed the subject as fully as possible.

    Peer Assessment

    Student teams discuss and compare their findings and share different viewpoints. Students should compare their drawings and explain what they feel about the sun’s warmth.

    Teacher Assessment

    Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individuals as they work.

    Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different ways to block the warming effect of the sun’s rays.

Lesson 2: Define: Which materials insulate an ice cube best? (45 min)

Lesson 2 Overview

                    How can we reduce the warming effects of the sun on an ice cube?

This lesson focuses on students testing different materials to be used for insulation around plastic cups and then determining how well each material prevents an ice cube inside the cup from melting in the sun:  NGSS K-PS3-2.  Teams will compare the strengths and weaknesses of their insulation materials  NGSS K-2-ETS1-3.   After several intervals of drawing ice cubes as they melt, student teams will compare the final drawing of a control ice cube in an uninsulated cup to the final drawing of their ice cube poured into an identical uninsulated cup  CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1  They will be able to explain the measureable attributes of both ice cubes and to describe the physical differences of the ice cubes CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.2 .

Essential Questions:

  • Which materials minimize the warming effects of the sun?
  • Which are the best materials to keep an ice cube from melting in the cup?

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Professional Preparation:

  • Provide enough space in the room to form small (2 student) teams.
  • Arrange to be near a location that gets direct sunlight.
  • Position all materials in a common area for student use. Suggestions:
    • Label an area the “Insulation Materials” location.
    • Set up another place for attachment materials (e.g., tape, rubber bands, string, etc.)
  • Plan how you will announce “time” at the beginning and at the end of each 5-minute interval.
  • Before the lesson, make copies of the Lesson 2 Maker Journal Pages (and Maker Journal “extra pages” if needed) for each student:
  • Preview the following videos prior to showing the students:

Lesson Format:

Each student team will test and analyze a different type of material and compare its strengths and weaknesses as a possible cup insulator.  Teams will receive identical plastic cups and cover the outside of them with their material.

Student teams will draw a “control” ice cube in a clear plastic cup. They will draw a picture of what the ice cube looks like at this initial stage on their Maker Journal Page.

Once students have chosen their insulating material and build a container or shade structure for the ice cube, the teacher will provide each team with one ice cube identical in size and weight to the control ice cube. A starting time will be announced and at that time each team will insert their ice cube into their “insulated” cup and set the cup outside in the direct sunlight (alongside the control ice cube in the plain cup).

After a 5 minute interval, time is called.in their Maker Journals, students quickly draw two pictures: one of the control or “plain” ice cube; and another of the cube that is shaded by their structure. After drawing pictures, student teams wait for a new 5 min time interval to be called. The process is repeated over and over until the final time is called.

At the end of the time period, student teams will compare the final drawings of the control ice cube in the insulated cup to the final drawing of their ice cube in the “plain” or control cup. They will explain the measureable attributes of both ice cubes and describe the physical differences of the ice cubes to the class. If possible, help students to weigh their cubes and compare to the weight of any remaining solid ice from the control cube.

 

Student Direction

T: “What furniture do we have in our classroom?  What are some features you notice about our classroom?”

S: Desks, tables, chairs, bookshelves, rugs, doorways, windows…

T: “We want to rearrange our learning space.  What things can we move, and what must stay the same?”

S: We can move tables, short shelves…We can’t move the door, or the built in shelves…

T: “You are going to draw a plan of the classroom.  Each piece of furniture is going to be colored in.  One color for items that can move, another for items that stay where they are.” Depending on your class, you may want to assign these colors. 

dl-student


T: “When we are planning to rearrange our space, how do we know where things fit before we move them?”

S: Measure the space, measure the furniture

T: “How could you measure our space and furniture with another object in our space?  How could we measure with our hands?  What else could be a measuring tool?”

S: Various suggestions for measuring tools such as shoes, arms, paper, math manipulatives.  Allow students to pick objects that both work well, and won’t work well and discuss why each could be useful, or unhelpful.

T: Demonstrate how students could measure, for example, the height of a chair with an eraser.  If using a recording sheet, show them how to add their data to the recording sheet.  Note for each object or feature which dimensions students should measure (length or width).  “How will you know the length of an object that does not perfectly match the size of the measuring tool?  My chair is taller than 5 erasers, but it is shorter than 6 erasers.  What should I write?”

S: 5 and a half

T: “It is now your job to measure the space and furniture in our classroom.  Write down your measurements on your recording sheet, and try to use a different measuring tool from your classmates.”

dl-student


T: Reflect with students while looking at their data.  “What do you think of your measuring tool?  Did it work well?  Is it too big or too small for what you want to measure?  Was it easy or hard to use?”

S: Various answers depending on what students used to measure.

Learning Targets

Students will be able to:

  • Determine how well a material covering a cup prevents an ice cube inside the cup from melting in the sun
  • Compare the strengths and weaknesses of their insulation materials
  • Compare the final weight of a control ice cube to the final weight of their ice cube
  • Explain the measureable attributes of both the control and their own ice cube and describe the physical differences of the ice cubes

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Students review their own reasons for choosing certain objects to sheild the warmth of the sun, and evaluate whether they addressed the subject as fully as possible.

Peer Assessment

Student teams discuss and compare their findings and share different viewpoints. Students should compare their drawings and explain what they feel about the sun’s warmth on an ice cube, and how measuring the weight of the ice cube was useful in this determination.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individuals as they work.

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different ways to block the warming effect of the sun’s rays.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box       -or-

One of the same water bottle or plastic cup per team, same size ice cubes in ice trays, scissors, weight scale, various materials (e.g., foil, plastic wrap, bubble wrap, paper, felt, fabrics, etc.)

Connecting Materials

e.g., paperclips, binder clips, tape, glue, thread, yarn, adhesive foam pads, labels & stickers, rubber bands, etc.

RAFT Makerspace Journal Pages  (Optional: a binder for each student to keep their Makerspace Journal pages in)

Please click on the following links:

Videos:

External Resources 

Maker Journal Pages

Lesson 2 Maker Journal Page:  Which Materials Insulate an Ice Cube Best?

Teacher Notes

Always preview videos ahead of showing to the class.  Explain the concept of “weight” to the class, (e.g., compare weights of different items they can hold in their hands).  Optional: assign one person to weigh the ice cubes in cups or you weigh them and announce/record(on a large chart in plain view of all students) each weight at five-minute intervals up until a time limit of 20 minutes (or any other chosen time limit; if need be, hand out to each student a Maker Journal Extra Page to record interval information.

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Lesson 3: Design Challenge: Ideate, Prototype, and Test (60 min)

Design Challenge Lesson Overview

Design a cup to keep ice water cold!

In this culminating lesson, student teams iterate ideating a design, prototyping it, testing it, and redesigning it until all requirements are met to create an insulator for a container using materials that minimize the temperature of ice water when the container is placed in direct sunlight (NGSS-K-PS3-2). The final design compares the temperature of the water inside the insulated container at the beginning of the experiment to the temperature of the water after 30 minutes to analyze any effects on the water’s temperature. Student teams will share their results, and compare and contrast differences between each team’s approach in solving the problem. [(NGSS-K-2-ETS1-2), (NGSS-K-2-ETS1-3) and (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1, 2)]

Essential Questions:

  • How can we keep ice water cold?
  • How can you design an object to keep ice water cool for 30 minutes?
  • How do you know your design works to insulate cold water?
  • What is the difference between weighing something and taking its temperature?

LESSON PROCEDURE:

Professional Preparation:

  • Provide enough space in the room to form small (2 to 3 student) teams.
  • Arrange to be near a location that gets direct sunlight.
  • Prepare how to introduce reading a simple thermometer to the class (Suggestion:  display a large picture of a thermometer for all to see).
  • Prepare ahead one “control cup” per student team by making a horizontal mark on the cup 3 inches up from the bottom. Set aside.
  • Set aside one additional unmarked identical plastic cup for each student team.
  • Similar to Lesson 2, position all materials in a common area for student use. Suggestions (feel free to change any way that best suits your class):
    • Label an area the “Insulation Materials” location.
    • Label another area the “Temperature Station” for taking the temperature of the ice water (decide whether you or a designated student from each team will do the actual temperature reading during each timed interval).
    • Set up another place for attachment materials (e.g., tape, rubber bands, string, etc.)
  • Plan how you will announce “time” at the beginning and at the end of the 30-minute time.
  • Before the lesson, make copies of the Lesson 3 Maker Journal Pages (and Maker Journal “extra pages” if needed) for each student:

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page1:  Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page2: How will your team keep ice water cold?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page3: What Does Your Final Design Look Like?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page4: Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun

Extra Maker Journal page (for any lesson):   Maker Journal Extra Page

  • Download the following videos and preview prior to showing the students:

Lesson Format:

  • Ask the first two essential questions (show examples of containers: e.g., a real water bottle and/or a thermos and ask students how they think it keeps liquids cool inside).
  • Hand each team one “control cup”, and one unmarked plastic cup.
  • Announce the marked plastic cup is the “control cup”.
  • In the Design Challenge, student teams will insulate the unmarked container with various recycled materials use to hold ice water.
  • The insulated container will be referred to as the “my team cup”.
  • Student teams iterate ideating a design for their “my team” container, prototyping it, testing it, and redesigning it until a final design is chosen to insulate the container.
  • Students record all their ideas and final designs in their Maker Journals.
  • Student teams move to a sunny location with their “control cup” and “my team cup” containers.
  • Provide one 16.9 fl.oz. bottle of ice water to each student team.
  • Students pour some of the ice water into the “control” container up to the marked line.
  • They empty the ice water that they just poured into the “control” container and then pour it into their insulated “my team cup”.
  • Student teams refill their “control cup” container up to the water line mark with the remaining bottled water.
  • All “control cup” and “my team cup” containers now hold ice water.
  • Announce a start time.
  • One team member on each team places the thermometer inside the “control” cup and reads the temperature out loud to the other team member.
  • Both team members record the starting water temperature (Temperature 1) for both the “control cup” and the “my team cup” in their Maker Journals ( Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun? ) and then place their “control cup” and “my team cup” containers in direct sunlight for 30 minutes.
  • During this time, student teams draw in their Maker Journal their ideate pictures illustrating their ideas for insulation on their “my team cup” ( How Will Your Team Keep Ice Water Cold?) and what their final design looks like (What Does Your Final Design Look Like?)
  • Student share and discuss the reasons why they chose to make those designs and how/why temperature is an indicator of how cold or hot something is.  Teams then draw ideas in their Maker Journal Page ( Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun) of how they would keep a snowman from melting in the sun……
  • Call time at 30 minutes.
  • Teams stop and compare the temperature of the water from the “control cup” container to that of the water in the “my team cup” container.
  • Everyone records the temperatures in their Maker Journals.
  • Student teams answer the third essential question.
  • Student teams share their findings with each other and/or another audience.
Student Direction

T: Pose some questions regarding more/less to get students thinking.  “Do we have more markers, or scissors in our class? What is the tallest piece of furniture in our room?  Who is our tallest classmate?”

S: More markers, the big bookshelf is taller…

T: “Let’s practice.  Look at the writing tools in our class.  (pencil, crayon, marker, colored pencil, etc.) Let’s arrange these by height.  Which tool has more height than the others?  Which has less?”

S: Several students demonstrate arranging writing tools by height.

T: “Now let’s arrange these by width.  What do I mean when I say width?

S: Students offer definition of width, and rearrange the writing tools.

T: “Let’s practice with some books now.  Who can help use arrange these books by height?”

S: Several students arrange books by height.

T: “Which book has more height, which has less?”  Consider repeating with width or depth as time allows, or if students need more practice.


dl-student

T: “You will now practice measuring things in our classroom to know what is bigger or smaller.  Find 3 things in the classroom to compare.  You will draw your objects in your Maker Journal page.” Demonstrating where to draw objects on a sample Maker Journal page. “What if you want to compare the door way and thebookshelf?  How will you know which one has more width without moving the bookshelf next to the door?”

S: Various suggestions.  Guide students towards the idea that they will need to measure both objects.

T: “You can use a measuring tool to measure how wide each object is, and then you can figure out which has more width.  For this, we will use pieces of string.  Hold one end at the edge of what you are measuring, and see how far along the string that object reaches.” Demonstrate measuring something immobile with a string.


T: “Look at your Maker Journal page.  Is the tallest object also the widest?”

S: Various answers depending on student work.

Lesson Materials

Building Materials

RAFT Makerspace-in-a-box       -or-

One 16.9 fluid oz. bottled ice water per student team.

Two of the same plastic cup per team, ice water, scissors, timers, thermometers, rulers or measuring tapes, markers,  various materials (e.g., foil, plastic wrap, bubble wrap, paper, felt, fabrics, etc.)

Connecting Materials

e.g., paperclips, binder clips, tape, glue, thread, yarn, adhesive foam pads, wooden stir sticks, straws, spoons, pipettes, labels & stickers, rubber bands, etc.)laminate samples, dust covers, foam pieces, deli containers, fishboard, cardboard tubes, plascore scraps, posters, shower caps, scrap materials, cards, etc.)

Please click on the following links:

Makerspace Journal Pages  (Optional: a binder for each student to keep their Makerspace Journal pages in)

External Resources 

Please click on the following video links:

Maker Journal Pages

LESSON 3 MAKER JOURNAL PAGES

Please click on the following links:

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page1:  Does the Temperature of Ice Water Change in the Sun?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page2:  How Will Your Team Keep Ice Water Cold?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page3: What Does Your Final Design Look Like?

Lesson 3 Maker Journal Page4: Keep a Snowman from Melting in the Sun!

Extra Maker Journal page (for any lesson):   Maker Journal Extra Page

Teacher Notes

Always preview videos ahead of showing to the class. If wished, discuss differences between Fahrenheit and Celcius readings.

Instead of one 60 minute lesson, you may choose to do this in two lessons:  the first lesson up until the final temperatures are recorded and the second lesson continuing from there.

Active Classroom

Communication is critical in the design process. Students need to be allowed to talk, stand, and move around to acquire materials. Tips for success in an active classroom environment:

1 –  Students can access any wall, board, or surface to gather and explore ideas — students personalize the working space to meet their needs.

2 – Students have regular opportunities to make choices, including choices about what they learn and how they learn it.

3 –Encourage students to learn and to demonstrate what they’ve learned in ways that best suit their individual learning styles.

4 – It is not a free-for-all!  Amount of prep and planning is evidenced by quality of student work and level of students’ engagement. All is carefully thought out in advance.

5 – Practice and predict clean-up strategies before beginning the activity. Ask students to offer suggestions for ensuring that they will leave a clean and useable space for the next activity. Students may enjoy creating very specific clean-up roles. Once these are established, the same student-owned strategies can be used every time hands-on learning occurs.

Learning Targets

Students will be able to:

  • Create an insulator for a container using materials that minimize the temperature of ice water when the container is placed in direct sunlight (NGSS-K-PS3-2).
  • Compare and analyze the temperature of ice water inside an insulated container at the beginning of the experiment to the temperature of the ice water after 30 minutes.
  • Share results and compare/contrast differences between each team’s approach in solving the problem [(NGSS-K-2-ETS1-2), (NGSS-K-2-ETS1-3) and (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1, 2)]

Assessment

Student Self Assessment

Students review their own reasons for choosing certain objects to sheild the warmth of the sun, and evaluate whether they addressed the subject as fully as possible.

Peer Assessment

Student teams discuss and compare their findings and share different viewpoints. Students compare their drawings and explain what they feel about the effect of the sun’s warmth on ice water, and how measuring the temperature of the ice cube was useful in this determination.

Teacher Assessment

Review student makerspace journal pages for formative assessment and discuss with individuals as they work. Assess student understanding of how different types of measurements are useful (e.g., weight, temperature).

Conduct a whole group discussion to allow all students to share, discuss and compare their findings around different ways to block the warming effect of the sun’s rays.

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